Friday, May 13, 2022

Which Section Of The Brain Is Concerned With Reasoning

Don't Miss

Logical Reasoning Methods And Argumentation

Areas of the brain

A subdivision of philosophy is logic. Logic is the study of reasoning. Looking at logical categorizations of different types of reasoning, the traditional main division made in philosophy is between deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning. Formal logic has been described as the science of deduction. The study of inductive reasoning is generally carried out within the field known as informal logic or critical thinking.

Deduction is a form of reasoning in which a conclusion follows necessarily from the stated premises. A deduction is also the conclusion reached by a deductive reasoning process. One classic example of deductive reasoning is that found in syllogisms like the following:

  • Premise 1: All humans are mortal.
  • Premise 2: Socrates is a human.

The reasoning in this argument is deductively valid because there is no way in which the premises, 1 and 2, could be true and the conclusion, 3, be false.

Induction is a form of inference producing propositions about unobserved objects or types, either specifically or generally, based on previous observation. It is used to ascribe properties or relations to objects or types based on previous observations or experiences, or to formulate general statements or laws based on limited observations of recurring phenomenal patterns.

A classic example of inductive reasoning comes from the empiricistDavid Hume:

  • Premise: The sun has risen in the east every morning up until now.

Reason Compared To Cause

As pointed out by philosophers such as Hobbes, Locke and Hume, some animals are also clearly capable of a type of “associative thinking“, even to the extent of associating causes and effects. A dog once kicked, can learn how to recognize the warning signs and avoid being kicked in the future, but this does not mean the dog has reason in any strict sense of the word. It also does not mean that humans acting on the basis of experience or habit are using their reason.

Human reason requires more than being able to associate two ideas, even if those two ideas might be described by a reasoning human as a cause and an effect, perceptions of smoke, for example, and memories of fire. For reason to be involved, the association of smoke and the fire would have to be thought through in a way which can be explained, for example as cause and effect. In the explanation of Locke, for example, reason requires the mental use of a third idea in order to make this comparison by use of syllogism.

More generally, reason in the strict sense requires the ability to create and manipulate a system of symbols, as well as indices and icons, according to Charles Sanders Peirce, the symbols having only a nominal, though habitual, connection to either smoke or fire. One example of such a system of artificial symbols and signs is language.

From Structuralism To Functionalism

As structuralism struggled to survive the scrutiny of the scientific method, new approaches to studying the mind were sought. One important alternative was functionalism, founded by William James in the late 19th century, described and discussed in his two-volume publication The Principles of Psychology . Built on structuralisms concern for the anatomy of the mind, functionalism led to greater concern about the functions of the mind, and later on to behaviourism.

One of Jamess students, James Angell, captured the functionalist perspective in relation to a discussion of free will in his 1906 text Psychology:An Introductory Study of the Structure and Function of Human Consciousness:

Functionalism considers mental life and behaviour in terms of active adaptation to the persons environment. As such, it provides the general basis for developing psychological theories not readily testable by controlled experiments such as applied psychology. William Jamess functionalist approach to psychology was less concerned with the composition of the mind than with examining the ways in which the mind adapts to changing situations and environments. In functionalism, the brain is believed to have evolved for the purpose of bettering the survival of its carrier by acting as an information processor. In processing information the brain is considered to execute functions similar to those executed by a computer and much like what is shown in Figure 2.3 below of a complex adaptive system.

You May Like: Forebrain Vs Prevagen

Reason Imagination Mimesis And Memory

Reason and imagination rely on similar mental processes. Imagination is not only found in humans. Aristotle, for example, stated that phantasia and phronein also exist in some animals. According to him, both are related to the primary perceptive ability of animals, which gathers the perceptions of different senses and defines the order of the things that are perceived without distinguishing universals, and without deliberation or logos. But this is not yet reason, because human imagination is different.

The recent modern writings of Terrence Deacon and Merlin Donald, writing about the origin of language, also connect reason connected to not only language, but also mimesis. More specifically they describe the ability to create language as part of an internal modeling of reality specific to humankind. Other results are consciousness, and imagination or fantasy. In contrast, modern proponents of a genetic predisposition to language itself include Noam Chomsky and Steven Pinker, to whom Donald and Deacon can be contrasted.

As reason is symbolic thinking, and peculiarly human, then this implies that humans have a special ability to maintain a clear consciousness of the distinctness of “icons” or images and the real things they represent. Starting with a modern author, Merlin Donald writes

Function Of The Brain

What part of the brain controls emotions and how?

Physiological functions of human brain involves in reception of information from the body, understanding it , and guiding the bodys reply. Brain is the maximum responsible of the thinking and motion the body generates. The human brain also mediates in vital actions such as: To breath, to control blood pressure, and to release hormones. The brain allows human being to interact successfully with the environment, by communicating and interacting with others.

Extensive of the physiological functions of the brain involve reception of information from the rest of the body, interpreting the information, and supervisory the bodys response. The main human brain functions are to keep the organism alive, so that it can interact with the environment. All the human being deliberates, feels and does is connected to specific functions of his/her brain:

Picture 3: Functions of Human Brain

Also Check: Why Do Humans Only Use 10 Of Their Brain

Boost Your Brain With Mind Lab Pro

Your brain is incredibly complex. Mind Lab Pro has 11 different nootropics all working together to increase your cognition and brainpower to help you live a better life.

If you need to perform at your best, need to focus, problem-solve or maintain a calm and clear mindset, you will get a huge benefit from taking Mind Lab Pro.

  • Performance focused athletes
  • Student learning

The human brain is hugely interconnected but three major components can be identified: the cerebrum, the cerebellum and the brain stem.

The brainstem which includes the medulla, the pons and the midbrain, controls breathing, digestion, heart rate and other autonomic processes, as well as connecting the brain with the spinal cord and the rest of the body.

The cerebellum plays an important role in balance, motor control, but is also involved in some cognitive functions such as attention, language, emotional functions and in the processing of procedural memories.

The cerebrum , which makes up 75% of the brain by volume and 85% by weight, is divided by a large groove, known as the longitudinal fissure, into two distinct hemispheres. The left and right hemispheres are linked by a large bundle of nerve fibres called the corpus callosum, and also by other smaller connections called commissures.

Lobes of the cerebral cortexPicture from Wikipedia The Limbic System and Basal GangliaPicture from How Stuff Works

The Brain Is Flexible: Neuroplasticity

The control of some specific bodily functions, such as movement, vision, and hearing, is performed in specified areas of the cortex, and if these areas are damaged, the individual will likely lose the ability to perform the corresponding function. For instance, if an infant suffers damage to facial recognition areas in the temporal lobe, it is likely that he or she will never be able to recognize faces . On the other hand, the brain is not divided up in an entirely rigid way. The brains neurons have a remarkable capacity to reorganize and extend themselves to carry out particular functions in response to the needs of the organism and to repair damage. As a result, the brain constantly creates new neural communication routes and rewires existing ones. Neuroplasticity refers to the brains ability to change its structure and function in response to experience or damage. Neuroplasticity enables us to learn and remember new things and adjust to new experiences.

Although neurons cannot repair or regenerate themselves as skin or blood vessels can, new evidence suggests that the brain can engage in neurogenesis, the forming of new neurons . These new neurons originate deep in the brain and may then migrate to other brain areas, where they form new connections with other neurons . This leaves open the possibility that someday scientists might be able to rebuild damaged brains by creating drugs that help grow neurons.

You May Like: Does Prevagen Help With Memory Loss

How Does Damage To The Parietal Lobe Affect Functioning

Because of the parietal lobe’s role in sensory integration, spatial reasoning, and language skills, damage to the parietal lobe can have a broad range of consequences. The specific prognosis depends in large part on the location of the injury, the severity of the injury, and whether the injury can be treated. For instance, a lesion pressing on the parietal lobe will have a better prognosis with improved functioning if the lesion can be removed.

Quality medical care is incredibly important, particularly when that care includes comprehensive physical, occupational, and speech therapy. Appropriate treatment can help your brain learn to work around the injuries, and may even aid other brain regions to compensate for those injuries. Your age, nutritional status, overall health at the time of the injury, and commitment to a healthy lifestyle are also important. A healthy person who continues exercising and trying novel strategies is much more likely to recover than someone with ongoing cardiovascular problems who is unwilling to try new strategies or embrace lifestyle remedies.

Three specific syndromes are especially common in people with parietal lobe damage:

  • Parietal Lobes. Neuro Skills. Accessed May 11, 2020. Learn More.
  • About Brain Injury: A Guide to Brain Anatomy. Brain Injury Minnesota. Accessed May 11, 2020. Learn More.

Which Of The Following Areas Is Associated With The Frontal Lobe

How Does the Brain Work? – Human Cognition | PSYCHOLOGY & BRAIN SCIENCE VIDEO

The frontal lobe is involved in reasoning, motor control, emotion, and language. It contains the motor cortex, which is involved in planning and coordinating movement the prefrontal cortex, which is responsible for higher-level cognitive functioning and Brocas area, which is essential for language production.

You May Like: Explain Why Brain Freeze Is A Type Of Referred Pain

Connecting And Balancing The Two Sides

In normal circumstances, there is a weak connection between the cerebral cortexs emotional side and the reasoning side of the cerebral cortex. For these sides to cooperate and offer you a fair choice, the middle man, area 32, must be strong. However, it doesnt work alone.

There is a part of the brain called the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex . Think of it as the command center for area 32. It gives area 32 commands about balancing the emotional and logical sides of the brain.

At its core, the DLPFC leans more towards the reasoning side of the brain, but this balances off with the fact that area 32 is deeply connected to area 25. The DLPFC makes sure that area 25 doesnt influence the decision too much. When the DLPFC malfunctions, this can cause you to lean one way or the other more.

For example, if the DLPFC is overactive, you could display obsessive-compulsive disorder tendencies. If its underactive, you may be unreasonably emotional about everything all the time.

Fmri Acquisition And Preprocessing

Functional images were acquired with an interleaved gradient-echo, echo planar imaging sequence . A T1-weighted series was acquired by using a 3D fast spoiled gradient recall brain volume sequence with 186 contiguous sagittal slices . Preprocessing was performed by using FSL and AFNI software libraries. Anatomical and functional images were skull stripped, the first five frames of each functional run were discarded, rigid-body motion correction was performed, functional images were high-pass filtered , and a 12-degree-of-freedom affine transformation was applied to co-register the series with each structural volume. Nonlinear resampling was applied to transform all images into MNI152 space, and functional volumes were spatially smoothed by using a 5-mm Gaussian kernel. All motion-corrected non-registered 4D data underwent visual inspection, and TRs associated with visually identified motion artifacts were flagged for exclusion and their corresponding FD values were recorded. The minimum of the distribution of these artifact-linked FDs was used as a common scrubbing threshold across subjects during analyses. TRs with excessive motion were censored out during the GLM analysis if they met or exceeded a threshold of 0.35-mm FD. Runs containing excessive motion were discarded from the analysis, resulting in the omission of three runs from two individuals. Six motion parameters were included as nuisance regressors in all analyses.

You May Like: Can Diabetes Cause Memory Loss

From Spontaneous Activity To Reasoning

Cognitive processes can be thought of as selections and orchestrations of cortical states already present in spontaneous activity . Each process reveals a specific part of the phase space, and can be associated with its own topological properties and symmetries, and characteristic kinematics, memory, aging properties, degree of ergodicity, and internal clock . For example, different conditions under which subjects carried out a reasoning task were shown to modulate the scaling regime of fluctuations of the corresponding brain activity , suggesting that reasoning may modulate not brain activity’s amplitude but its functional form , e.g., by forcing the system’s stationary distribution to equal a target one. These modulations may correspond to cross-overs between universality classes, resulting from transitions between different dynamical regimes .

Assessing reasoning: from dynamics to thermodynamics and information

Considering the functions reasoning fulfills and the constraints the brain faces while performing it can shed light on ways in which brain fluctuations can help quantify how the brain carries out reasoning.

What Is The Gray Matter And White Matter

Right Brain Injury vs. Left Brain Injury

Gray and white matter are two different regions of the central nervous system. In the brain, gray matter refers to the darker, outer portion, while white matter describes the lighter, inner section underneath. In the spinal cord, this order is reversed: The white matter is on the outside, and the gray matter sits within.

Gray matter is primarily composed of neuron somas , and white matter is mostly made of axons wrapped in myelin . The different composition of neuron parts is why the two appear as separate shades on certain scans.

Each region serves a different role. Gray matter is primarily responsible for processing and interpreting information, while white matter transmits that information to other parts of the nervous system.

Don’t Miss: Is Vyvanse Associated With Memory Loss

S Of The Brain: Structures Anatomy And Functions

The human brain is one of the largest and most complex organs in the body. It controls your emotions, thoughts, speech, memory, creativity, breathes, movement, and stores information from the outside world. This article discusses the different parts of the brain and the function of each structure.

The brain is a 3-pound organ that contains more than 100 billion neurons and many specialized areas. There are 3 main parts of the brain include the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The Cerebrum can also be divided into 4 lobes: frontal lobes, parietal lobes, temporal lobes, and occipital lobes. The brain stem consists of three major parts: Midbrain, Pons, and Medulla oblongata. Although each structure has a distinct function, they work together to control all functions of the body.

Which Section Of The Brain Is Concerned With Reasoning

It performs higher functions like interpreting touch vision and hearing as well as speech reasoning emotions learning and fine control of movement. Damage to the brain s frontal lobe is known to impair one s ability to think and make choices. The lowest part of the brainstem the medulla is the most vital part of the entire brain and contains important control centers for the heart and lungs.

Also Check: Cell Bodies Of Serotonin Neurons Are Located Within The

Right Brain Left Brain

The cerebrum is divided into two halves: the right and left hemispheres They are joined by a bundle of fibers called the corpus callosum that transmits messages from one side to the other. Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body. If a stroke occurs on the right side of the brain, your left arm or leg may be weak or paralyzed.

Not all functions of the hemispheres are shared. In general, the left hemisphere controls speech, comprehension, arithmetic, and writing. The right hemisphere controls creativity, spatial ability, artistic, and musical skills. The left hemisphere is dominant in hand use and language in about 92% of people.

The Problem With Reasoning

Anatomy 1, The Brain

The generalized form of reasoning considered in this study comes in episodes offering scant behaviorally salient events with no characteristic temporal length. Each episode is a non-reproducible instance, as a reasoning task can be carried out in multiple ways. Brain activity associated with reasoning is not event-related, and many neurophysiological processes interact in a wide range of spatial and temporal scales.

These phenomena can all be traced back to a basic fact: the brain did not develop a dedicated device for reasoning. Hardwired partially segregated modules ensure that perceptuo-motor functions are carried out at great speed, with stereotyped duration and time-varying profile, and identifiable stages, largely determined by input statistical properties. Reasoning, on the contrary, is associated with an internally-driven dynamics: processing times and stages, and functional brain geometry are largely unconstrained.

Considering these extraordinary challenges, can we still find general reasoning properties, over and above specific task demands and individual differences? What sort of process is reasoning in its general form? Is it a series of simpler reasoning cycles? Can we segment it into stages? What are the best neural variables and tools to make these properties observable?

Recommended Reading: Serotonin Metabolites

More articles

Popular Articles