Monday, May 23, 2022

Which Side Of The Brain Controls Language

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What Is The Gray Matter And White Matter

What Does the Left Side of the Brain Control

Gray and white matter are two different regions of the central nervous system. In the brain, gray matter refers to the darker, outer portion, while white matter describes the lighter, inner section underneath. In the spinal cord, this order is reversed: The white matter is on the outside, and the gray matter sits within.

Gray matter is primarily composed of neuron somas , and white matter is mostly made of axons wrapped in myelin . The different composition of neuron parts is why the two appear as separate shades on certain scans.

Each region serves a different role. Gray matter is primarily responsible for processing and interpreting information, while white matter transmits that information to other parts of the nervous system.

Parts Of The Brain Involved In Speech

In recent decades, there has been an explosion of research into language processing in the brain. Its now generally accepted that the control of speech is part of a complex network in the brain.

The formation of speech requires many different processes, from putting thoughts into words, forming a comprehensible sentence, and then actually making the mouth move to make the correct sounds.

There are several areas of the brain known to play a role in speech:

Right Hemisphere Language Functions

In contrast to the left hemisphere, the right hemisphere does not normally have much responsibility for linguistic processes such as phonology, morphology and syntax. However, it is the primary mediator of a set of paralinguistic or pragmatic phenomena that accompany the words of an utterance and that can modify or influence its meaning. These higher order language functions are crucial to understanding someone’s true communicative intent and thereby integrating effectively into society. How something is said may be just as important as what is said. In the review of literature that follows we focus on studies that compared patients with unilateral left hemisphere brain damage, patients with unilateral right hemisphere brain damage and healthy controls without brain damage. Where possible, more recent evidence from neuroimaging studies is included; this latter group of studies primarily assessed right hemisphere language functions in people free from neurological and psychiatric disorders.

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The Processing Activity Of Both Brain Hemispheres

The right side of the brain looks at the whole first before it breaks things down into parts. It is also random. A right-brained person is more likely to move from one task to the other completing the same amount of work done by a left-brained person but without paying attention to priorities. The right side likes everything to be concrete. It likes to be able to see, feel or touch the real object. It also likes context. Right-brained people are said to know what they mean but often have trouble in verbally expressing them.

The left brain, in contrast, processes information in a linear manner and from a part to a whole. It takes every piece of information, lines them up and then arranges them into a logical order before forming conclusions. It also processes in sequence, so tasks are finished in order. Left-brained people easily learn things in a sequence as they apply linear thinking. The left side of the brain processes symbols including letters, words and mathematical notations. Left-brained people are known to easily cope with mathematical and linguistic tasks and they have excellent verbal skills.

The Functions of the Right Brain

  • Uses feelings;
  • Numbers

Can You Live Without The Left Side Of Your Brain

File:Brain Lateralization.svg

And yes, it can happen. It’s rare but there are few dozens of people who live without large parts of their brain, half or even less. These people weren’t born that way. Most commonly they had a disease in childhood, such as Rasmussen’s encephalitis, where epileptic seizures are very common.

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The Left Hemisphere Of The Brain

The left side of the brain controls the right side of the body. If the left side of the brain is dominant, the person is logical and more academically inclined.

You most likely excel in academics, especially math and science. The left hemisphere of the brain is also called the digital brain. It is the one responsible for the following:

  • Verbal

Injury In The Left Hemisphere Of The Brain

Since the left hemisphere of the brain controls the right side of the body, any injuries in it could lead to right-sided weakness. The following problems could arise:

  • Difficulty understanding both written and spoken words.
  • Difficulty expressing both written and spoken words.
  • The person finds it difficult to coordinate or program motor movements for speaking or medically called apraxia.
  • Slurred speech or change in the sound of the voice .
  • Difficulties with numbers.
  • Difficulty in dealing with complex problems.

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Logopenic Primary Progressive Aphasia

Degeneration of the angular gyrus in the temporal lobe and inferior parietal lobe can lead to lvPPA. Typical symptoms include slowed speech with normal articulation, impaired comprehension of sentence syntax as well as impaired naming of things. lvPPA is probably associated with Alzheimers disease;pathology.

Where Do Emotions Come From

How the Brain Controls Speech | Stephen Fry’s Planet Word | BBC Studios

The limbic system is a group of interconnected structures located deep within the brain. Its the part of the brain thats responsible for behavioral and emotional responses.

Scientists havent reached an agreement about the full list of structures that make up the limbic system, but the following structures are generally accepted as part of the group:

  • Hypothalamus. In addition to controlling emotional responses, the hypothalamus is also involved in sexual responses, hormone release, and regulating body temperature.
  • Hippocampus. The hippocampus helps preserve and retrieve memories. It also plays a role in how you understand the spatial dimensions of your environment.
  • Amygdala. The amygdala helps coordinate responses to things in your environment, especially those that trigger an emotional response. This structure plays an important role in fear and anger.
  • Limbic cortex. This part contains two structures, the cingulate gyrus and the parahippocampal gyrus. Together, they impact mood, motivation, and judgement.

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How Is Being Right

Each brain hemisphere controls the movement of the opposite side of the body. In left-handed people, the motor cortex in the right hemisphere is dominant for fine motor behaviors, such as writing with a pencil. The reverse is true for right-handed peoplethe left hemisphere is stronger when it comes to such movements.

Left Brain Vs Right Brain

By Eagle Gamma, published May 18, 2021

The brain consists of twin halves, a left hemisphere alongside a nearly symmetrical right hemisphere.

Hemispheric lateralization is the idea that both hemispheres are functionally different and that certain mental processes andbehaviours are mainly controlled by one hemisphere rather than the other.

The left hemisphere controls the right hand side of the body and receives information from the right visual field controlling speech,language and recognition of words, letters and numbers.

The right hemisphere controls the left hand side of the body and receives information from the left visual field controlling creativity,context and recognition of faces, places and objects.

According to the left-brain, right-brain dominance theory the left-side of the brain is considered to be adept at tasks which are considered logical, rational, calculating.By contrast, the right side of the brain is best at artistic, creative, and spontaneous tasks

Left Brain
Being intuitive

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The Lobes Of The Brain

Each hemisphere of the brain is divided into functional sections known as lobes. There are four lobes in each half of the brain. They are:

  • Frontal lobe: Located at the front of the brain, right behind the forehead. The frontal lobe is quite large, occupying about one-third of the cerebral cortex’s total mass, and it controls personality, behavior, emotional regulation, and the ability to plan, solve problems, and organize.
  • Parietal lobe: Located near the back and top of the head, above the ears. The parietal lobe controls the ability to read, write, and understand spatial concepts.;The function of the left and right parietal lobes do not completely mirror each other, with the dominant parietal lobe controlling speech and logic, while the non-dominant parietal lobe controls spatial skills and creativity. In fact, a stroke affecting the non-dominant parietal lobe can produce its own set of problems, including disorientation and an inability to recognize one’s own body.
  • Occipital lobe: A small region located at the back of the head. The occipital lobe is responsible for the integration of vision.
  • Temporal lobe: Located at the side of the head above the ears and below the frontal lobe. The temporal lobe controls hearing, memory, speech, and comprehension.

Detailed Information About The Functions And Characteristics Of The Right Brain

The Nervous System (Slide Show)
  • It allows young children to grasp and understand the concept of more versus less.;
  • The right hemisphere of the brain is responsible for some of the cognitive functions such as attention, processing of visual shapes and patterns, emotions, verbal ambiguity, and implied meanings.
  • Children below 3 years old are predominantly governed by the right brain.

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Getting To Know Your Brain: Cerebellum

In Latin, cerebellum actually means little brain; however, its function is anything but. This area of the brain controls important body functions such as balance, coordination, posture, and motor learning.Read More

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Blood Supply To The Brain

Two sets of blood vessels supply blood and oxygen to the brain: the vertebral arteries and the carotid arteries.

The external carotid arteries extend up the sides of your neck, and are where you can feel your pulse when you touch the area with your fingertips. The internal carotid arteries branch into the skull and circulate blood to the front part of the brain.

The vertebral arteries follow the spinal column into the skull, where they join together at the brainstem and form the basilar artery, which supplies blood to the rear portions of the brain.

The circle of Willis, a loop of blood vessels near the bottom of the brain that connects major arteries, circulates blood from the front of the brain to the back and helps the arterial systems communicate with one another.

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Which Part Of The Brain Deals With Thinking: The Cerebellum

Although it isnt directly involved in thinking, the cerebellum plays an important role in this process. This part of the brain takes up to 10% of its total volume, yet contains more than half of all the neurons in the brain.

Known as unconscious, the cerebellum is in charge of balance and coordination.

Scientists have discovered that the unconscious cerebellum interacts with the conscious cerebrum to perform functions. The cerebellum carries out planned muscle movements such as running and jumping. Thats why sometimes scientists call it the thinking cerebellum.

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The Brain Is Plastic Its Fantastic

What part of the brain controls speech?

For a very long time, scientists didnt believe it was possible for the brain to change throughout life. The overall assumption was that the brain would develop up until a certain point, from which its connections would become fixed and then eventually start to fade. It was also believed that there was no way to repair the brain after it suffered injury. However, recent studies proved the exact opposite: that the brain, in fact, never stops changing as a response to different experiences.

This is explained by the concept of neuroplasticity. In neuroscience, plastic refers to the capacity that materials have to change and be moulded into different shapes. It is the brains ability to adjust its physical structure and, this way, repair damaged regions, grow new neurons, rezone regions to perform new tasks and build networks of neurons that allow us to remember, feel and dream things. It is, furthermore, what allows us to explain how the brain is able to mould itself following second language acquisition.

The concept of neuroplasticity, along with its link to language learning, helps clear up the evolution of the human brain throughout life, but most of all it shows that, up to a certain extent, we are able to control that transformation. The problem is, most of the times, we choose not to. Alvaro Pascual-Leone, a neurologist at Harvard Medical School, puts it best:

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What Part Of The Brain Controls Speech

Your brain is responsible for nearly all functions of your body and for interpreting sensory information from the world around you.

Your brain has many parts but speech is primarily controlled by the largest part of the brain, the cerebrum.

The cerebrum can be divided into two parts, called hemispheres, which are joined by a band of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum.

Your speech is typically governed by the left side of your cerebrum. In about a third of people who are left-handed, however, speech may actually be controlled by the right side.

Injury In The Right Hemisphere Of The Brain

The right hemisphere of the brain controls the left side of the body. Any injuries on the right side of the brain could result in left-sided weakness. The following problems could arise:

  • The patient finds it challenging to focus on concentrate on a task.
  • The left side of the body cant attend to things.
  • Difficulty in processing the information on the left visual field.;
  • The patient cant recall the previously learned information as well as difficulty in learning new information.
  • The person fails to identify problems or even generate solutions.
  • The persons social communication skills are affected such as interpreting abstract language, understanding jokes, making inferences, and understanding non-verbal cues.;
  • Difficulty in recalling significant events such as the time, date, and place.
  • Difficulty in organizing things such as arranging information and planning.

A detailed comparison between the right brain hemisphere and the left brain hemisphere is shown in the table below.

The brains two lateral halves also known as left hemisphere and right hemisphere have neurons/receptors which are used for various bodily functions. The left hemisphere of the brain is in-charge of the cognitive functions such as speech and language.

The right hemisphere of the brain is more on creativity and face recognition. Although the functions of the brain is divided based on its hemisphere, even a particular functions to be executed, it would still need the entire brain.

References

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Here Are Some Of The Things That Happen To Your Brain When You Learn A New Language:

  • Grey matter increases: Grey matter is a substance which connects different sections of the brain. The volume of grey matter increases as a result of language learning. Einstein had an abnormally large amount of grey matter.
  • Physical increase in size: MRI scans done as part of a study in Sweden showed parts of the brain associated with memory physically grow, like muscles, when stimulated regularly.
  • Memory improves: The learning of new rules and memorizing grammar and vocabulary has positive effects on your everyday cognitive retention.
  • Improved ability to concentrate: Studies show that bilinguals find it easier to focus on tasks and control their attention than monolinguals.
  • Fends off dementia: Although learning a language may not totally halt the onset of Alzheimers and other forms of dementia in susceptible individuals, it can fend it off for up to five years. This is much more effective than any currently prescribed drug.
  • Becomes easier to learn new languages: Once your brain has been trained to spot patterns involved in learning a new language, it makes it much easier for it to spot the patterns in the future.
  • To The Left Cortex And Beyond

    About the Brain

    It has long been established that humans capacity to use their native language is stored in the left hemisphere of the brain in over 90% of the normal population. The main parts of the brain involved in language processes are the Brocas area, located in the left frontal lobe, which is responsible for speech production and articulation, and the Wernickes area, in the left temporal lobe, associated with language development and comprehension.

    Language learning, however, is a complex procedure that scientists have determined is not limited to any hemisphere of the brain, but instead involves information exchange between the left and the right sides. Nothing that comes as a surprise, if we consider just how many elements a single language entails.

    But the complexity doesnt stop here. The part of the brain where humans store a second language varies according to the age they acquire it. A study conducted at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York with the help of 12 bilingual volunteers revealed that children who learn a second language early on store it together with their native language, while in adult learners it is saved in a different area of the brain. This suggests that the brain accommodates languages separately at different points of the subjects lifespan, which means the structures involved in language acquisition and processing are not fixed, but change, undergoing cortical adaptation when a new language is added.

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    Aphasia: Classification Of Disorders

    One such communication disorder is Aphasia. Aphasia is a disturbance happening in comprehension or expression of language.;

    Aphasia is a disorder resulting from damage to parts of the brain that are important for language. For several people, these areas are on the left side of the brain. The left brain is where the two regions of the brain responsible for language are found: Wernickes area and Brocas area. Aphasia is usually categorized as expressive or receptive, depending on how difficult it is to understand or express language. But the majority with aphasia have some trouble with their speaking and will have a mixture of problems with writing, reading, and perhaps listening.

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