Monday, May 23, 2022

Which Type Of Seizure Affects Both Sides Of The Brain

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What Research Is Being Done On Epilepsy

Understanding Generalized Seizures (Epilepsy #4)

While research has led to many advances in understanding and treating epilepsy, there are many unanswered questions about how and why seizures develop, how they can best be treated or prevented, and how they influence other brain activity and brain development. Researchers, many of whom are supported by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke , are studying all of these questions. They also are working to identify and test new drugs and other treatments for epilepsy and to learn how those treatments affect brain activity and development.

The NINDSâs Anticonvulsant Screening Program studies potential new therapies with the goal of enhancing treatment for patients with epilepsy. Since it began in 1975, more than 390 public-private partnerships have been created. These partnerships have resulted in state-of-the-art evaluations of more than 25,000 compounds for their potential as antiepileptic drugs. This government-sponsored effort has contributed to the development of five drugs that are now approved for use in the United States. It has also aided in the discovery and profiling of six new compounds currently in various stages of clinical development. Besides testing for safer, more efficacious therapies, the Program is developing and validating new models that may one day find therapies that intervene in the disease process itself as well as models of resistant or refractory epilepsy.

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What Are Focal Onset Seizures

Focal onset seizures start in, and affect, just one part of the brain, sometimes called the ‘focus’ of the seizures. It might affect a large part of one hemisphere or just a small area in one of the lobes.

Focal onset seizures start in, and affect, just one part of the brain, sometimes called the ‘focus’ of the seizures. It might affect a large part of one hemisphere or just a small area in one of the lobes.

Sometimes a focal onset seizure can spread to both sides of the brain . The focal onset seizure is then a warning, sometimes called an ‘aura’ that another seizure will happen.

Focal Vs Generalized Seizures

Seizures occur when one or more parts of the brain have an abnormal electrical signal that interrupts normal signals. There are two main categories of seizures: focal and generalized. Focal seizures also called partial seizures take place in only one side of the brain, while generalized seizures take place in both parts of the brain.

When experiencing focal seizures, sometimes a child may experience an aura before the seizure occurs. This strange feeling consists of visual changes, hearing abnormalities, or changes in the sense of smell. The most common focal seizures are simple focal and complex focal seizures.

When a child experiences a generalized seizure, they typically lose consciousness or have an altered state of consciousness known as a postictal state. There are four common generalized seizures: absence, atonic, generalized tonic-clonic, and myoclonic. They can occur at different ages throughout adolescence and produce different symptoms.

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What You Need To Know

  • Seizures symptoms vary and can include a sudden change in awareness or full loss of consciousness, unusual sensations or thoughts, involuntary twitching or stiffness in the body or severe stiffening and limb shaking with loss of consciousness
  • There are two major classes or groups of seizures: focal onset and generalized onset.
  • Focal onset seizures start in one area and can spread across the brain and cause mild or severe symptoms, depending on how the electrical discharges spread.
  • Generalized seizures can start as focal seizures that spread to both sides of the brain. They also can occur as generalized onset seizures in which seizure activity starts simultaneously over both sides of the brain. Generalized onset seizures usually start during childhood and are similar to a thermostat surge or a light flash abnormal regulation between parts of the brain causes the seizures.
  • Seizures of all kinds are most commonly treated with medication, and, if they are difficult to control, with diet therapy, nerve stimulation or surgery.

It is important for the doctor to get an accurate seizure diagnosis in order to implement the most appropriate kind of treatment. Focal and generalized onset seizures usually have different causes and accurately diagnosing seizure types often helps identify the cause for the seizures.

Cerebral Palsy And Epilepsy Explained

Seizures and Epilepsy  Overiew

Epilepsy is a condition that causes seizures due to abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Some form of injury often causes this unusual electrical activity to occur.

Almost all children with cerebral palsy will also have some form of epilepsy. Epilepsy will often appear earlier in children with cerebral palsy than in other children. However, the frequency of epilepsy is highest in children with spastic quadriplegia and lowest in children with spastic diplegia .

Like cerebral palsy, epilepsy can present itself in different ways. Some seizures will be violent convulsions with a loss of consciousness. Others will cause an individual to look like they are zoning out or confused for a moment.

Epileptic seizures can be controlled with antiepileptic medications. In some cases, the underlying issue causing the seizures will resolve itself as your child ages.

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The Most Common Seizure Symptoms Depending On Stage And Type According To Experts

Seizure symptoms go far beyond what you see in the movies, when a person drops to the ground and starts shaking. While that can happen, the reality is that there are many symptoms a person can have before and during a seizureand some are more subtle than others.

“What I like to say is that anything a brain can do, a seizure can look like,” Vikram Rao, MD, PhD, an associate professor of neurology at the University of California, San Francisco, tells Health. “So that means seizures can present with visual symptoms. Seizures can present with just an internal feeling. Seizures can be smells or tastes.”

Seizures can happen to any person at any time, so having a sense of what they look like can help you know what’s going on and get the right care. Here are some common signs and symptoms of a seizure, along with treatment options to consider.

Causes Of Seizure Disorders

Which causes are most common depend on when seizures start:

  • Before age 2: High fevers or temporary metabolic abnormalities, such as an abnormal blood level of sugar , calcium, magnesium, vitamin B6, or sodium, can trigger one or more seizures. Seizures do not occur once the fever or abnormality resolves. If the seizures recur without such triggers, the cause is likely to be an injury during birth, a birth defect, or a hereditary metabolic abnormality or brain disorder.

  • 2 to 14 years: Often, the cause is unknown .

  • Adults: A head injury, stroke, or tumor may damage the brain, causing a seizure. Alcohol withdrawal is a common cause of seizures. However, in about half of people in this age group, the cause is unknown.

  • Older adults: The cause may be a brain tumor or stroke.

Seizures with no identifiable cause are called idiopathic.

Conditions that irritate the brainsuch as injuries, certain drugs, sleep deprivation, infections, feveror that deprive the brain of oxygen or fuelsuch as abnormal heart rhythms, a low level of oxygen in the blood, or a very low level of sugar in the blood can trigger a single seizure whether a person has a seizure disorder or not. A seizure that results from such a stimulus is called a provoked seizure .

People with a seizure disorder are more likely to have a seizure when the following occur:

  • They are under excess physical or emotional stress.

  • They are intoxicated or deprived of sleep.

  • They have suddenly stopped drinking or using sedatives.

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Contact Sonas For Home Health Care In Florida

It can be hard to balance your time between work, home, and caring for a child who experiences seizures. Homecare providers offer the support you or your loved one needs.

Thats why our team of skilled professionals at Sonas Home Health are here to help. Our home care services offer support in the comfort of your home. We refer loving and competent caregivers to provide customized care for families from a few hours a day to around-the-clock supervision. Contact us directly to speak with a home health care professional or request a free in-home assessment. Together we can determine the best plan of action to keep your loved ones happy and healthy.

Inflammatory Pathways And Epileptogenesis

Seizure and Epilepsy for USMLE Step 1 and USMLE Step 2

How might inflammatory signaling upstream of neurodegeneration increase excitability and subsequent synchronicity? Immune responses in the brain are initiated, maintained and terminated by soluble effector proteins known as cytokines. Although a strong correlation between seizures and elevated inflammatory cytokines or their mRNA transcripts has been reported , emerging experimental evidence indicates that inflammatory cytokines can in turn alter neuronal excitability and synchronicity by modulating receptor function and expression . For example, the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF- has also been shown to promote the recruitment of AMPA receptors to postsynaptic membranes. Interestingly, the recruited receptors preferentially lack the GluR2 subunit and consequently the calcium conductance underlying EPSPs is increased. Additionally, TNF- causes endocytosis of GABAA receptors from the cellular surface, decreasing inhibitory synaptic strength . Taken together these findings demonstrate that TNF can have a profound impact on circuit homeostasis in a manner that can provoke the pathogenesis of seizures.

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S Of The Brain And Their Functions

The brain is divided into two halves called the right and left cerebral hemispheres:

  • The left side of the brain controls the right side of the body.
  • The right side of the brain controls the left side of the body.

Each part of the brain controls a different activity.

Frontal lobe- Controls muscle movements, thinking, and judgment.

Parietal lobe- Controls sense of touch, response to pain and temperature, and understanding of language.

Occipital lobe- Controls vision.

Temporal lobe- Controls hearing and memory.

Cerebellum – Controls balance.

Cerebral Palsy And Epilepsy

HomeCerebral PalsyConditions Associated with Cerebral PalsyQuick Answer

Children who have cerebral palsy are highly susceptible to seizures. The type and frequency of the seizures will depend on what causes them. Around 94% of children with cerebral palsy will have some type of seizures in their childhood. While that percentage sounds alarming, once parents are aware of what is happening, epileptic seizures can be safely managed.

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History And Physical Examination

An eyewitness report of the episode can be very helpful to doctors. An eyewitness can describe exactly what happened, whereas people who have an episode usually cannot. Doctors need to have an accurate description, including the following:

  • How fast the episode started

  • Whether it involved abnormal muscle movements , tongue biting, drooling, loss of bladder or bowel control, or muscle stiffening

  • How long it lasted

  • How quickly the person recovered

A quick recovery suggests fainting rather than a seizure. Confusion that lasts for many minutes to hours after consciousness is regained suggests a seizure.

Although eyewitnesses may be too frightened during the seizure to remember all details, whatever they can remember can help. If possible, how long a seizure lasts should be timed with a watch or other device. Seizures that last only 1 or 2 minutes can seem to go on forever.

Doctors also need to know what people experienced before the episode: whether they had a premonition or warning that something unusual was about to happen and whether anything, such as certain sounds or flashing lights, seemed to trigger the episode.

Doctors ask people about possible causes of seizures, such as the following:

A thorough physical examination is done. It may provide clues to the cause of the symptoms.

Cerebral Palsy Epilepsy Treatment And Therapy

How to be There for Your Loved One with Epilepsy

Epilepsy can often be treated antiepileptic medication to limit or stop them from happening. However, some individuals can experience intense side effects from the medications, such as struggling to form and express their thoughts.

If a known brain injury is causing the seizures, surgery might also be an option, but it is not without its risks. Be sure to speak with your doctor about the different treatment options and the benefits and risks associated with each.

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Focal Seizuresexpand 1 Focal Seizures Section

Focal seizures occur when seizure activity is limited to a part of one brain hemisphere. There is a site, or a focus, in the brain where the seizure begins. There are two types of focal seizures:

If you have epilepsy, ask your healthcare provider to explain what type of seizures you have. Learning the names and terms for your seizure type can help you describe it accurately to others.

What Treatments Are Available

Medication Your doctor may prescribe a drug called an antiepileptic drug, or anticonvulsant, used to treat seizures. These drugs are taken every day, sometimes several times a day, for as long as needed. The drugs help control the seizures. There are over two dozen medications for seizures. Common anticonvulsants include Dilantin , Tegretol , Depakote , and phenobarbital. Several recent medications, such as Lamictal , Neurontin , Cerebyx , Keppra , and Felbatol , have been approved since 1993 for the treatment of seizure disorders. These drugs may be used alone or in combination with each other when seizures are difficult to control.

Your doctor may prescribe anticonvulsants briefly after you have had brain surgery, head trauma, or a cerebral hemorrhage. If you have no seizures, the dosage of the drug is usually tapered until it is stopped within a short time. However, that time period may vary, based on your condition and specific problem.

As with all drugs there are side effects and drug interactions. Most common side effects include fatigue, drowsiness, nausea, and blurred vision. Also, these drugs may reduce the effectiveness of birth control pills.

Surgery If medications do not control your seizures, then surgery in the portion of the brain responsible for your seizures may treat the condition. If this is the case, you should discuss this option with your doctor .

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Generalised Onset Seizures And Unknown Onset Seizures

Generalised onset seizures affect both sides of the brain at once and happen without warning.

The person will be unconscious , even if just for a few seconds and afterwards will not remember what happened during the seizure.

Unknown onset seizures are sometimes used to describe a seizure if doctors are not sure where in the brain the seizure starts. This may happen if the person was asleep, alone or the seizure was not witnessed.

If there is not enough information about a person’s seizure, or if it is unusual, doctors may call it an unclassified seizure.

Clonic seizures

Clonic seizures involve repeated rhythmical jerking movements of one side or part of the body or both sides depending on where the seizure starts.

Seizures can start in one part of the brain or affect both sides of the brain .

What Are The Major Types Of Seizures

What is epilepsy?

Epilepsy, the most common seizure condition, occurs when there’s abnormal electrical activity in an individual’s central nervous system. The misfiring nerves cause seizure activity, which can affect the muscles, senses, or behavior on a short-term basis. Different people tend to have different seizures and symptom presentations, but most have fairly consistent symptoms from seizure to seizure. The two main types of seizures are focal and general seizures. Some seizures are more common in children, while others are more common in adults. Because seizures due to epilepsy can often be mistaken for other psychiatric, neurological, or muscle disorders, or vice versa, it’s important for individuals to undergo thorough testing before receiving a diagnosis.

Get the details on the major types of seizures now.

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How Are Seizures Diagnosed

Doctors can have a difficult time diagnosing seizure types. Your doctor may recommend certain tests to diagnose a seizure accurately and to help ensure that the treatments they recommend will be effective.

Your doctor will consider your full medical history and the events leading up to the seizure. For example, conditions such as migraine headaches, sleep disorders, and extreme psychological stress can cause seizure-like symptoms.

Lab tests may help your doctor rule out other conditions that can cause seizure-like activity. The tests may include:

  • blood testing to check for electrolyte imbalances
  • a spinal tap to rule out infection
  • a toxicology screening to test for drugs, poisons, or toxins

An electroencephalogram can help your doctor diagnose a seizure. This test measures your brain waves. Viewing brain waves during a seizure can help your doctor diagnose the type of seizure.

Imaging scans such as a CT scan or MRI scan also can help by providing a clear picture of the brain. These scans allow your doctor to see abnormalities like blocked blood flow or a tumor.

With regular treatment, you can reduce or stop seizure symptoms.

Clear the area around a person whos having a seizure to prevent possible injury. If possible, place them on their side and provide cushioning for their head.

Stay with the person, and call 911 as soon as possible if any of these apply:

What Are The Effects Of Seizures

If you dont get treatment for seizures, their symptoms can become worse and progressively longer in duration. Extremely long seizures can lead to coma or death.

Seizures also can lead to injury, such as falls or trauma to the body. Its important to wear a medical identification bracelet that tells emergency responders that you have epilepsy.

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