Friday, May 27, 2022

Which Was A Requirement Of The Clean Air Act Brainly

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Power Plants Have Cut Emissions That Cause Acid Rain And Harm Public Health

Understanding the Clean Air Act
  • A national system of marketable pollution allowances has dramatically cut power plant emissions of sulfur dioxide, reducing acid rain as well as secondary formation of fine particle pollution that contributes to premature death. Acid rain, which includes wet and dry deposition of acidic compounds from the atmosphere, results from emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.
  • Reducing acid rain has significantly reduced damage to water quality in lakes and streams, and improved the health of ecosystems and forests.
  • Between the 1989 to 1991 and 2009 to 2011 observation periods, wet deposition of sulfate decreased by more than 55 percent on average across the eastern United States.
  • The dramatic emissions reductions achieved by the acid rain program have helped to reduce atmospheric levels of fine particle pollution, avoiding numerous premature deaths.
  • Government and independent analyses have concluded that the benefits of the program far outweigh the costs, as detailed in the U.S. government’s National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program 2011 Report to Congress .
  • Multiple analyses show that the cost of the fully implemented program is a fraction of the originally estimated cost – between $1-2 billion annually rather than the $6 billion EPA originally estimated in 1990, according to the NAPAP report.
  • What Steps Are Involved In The Selection Of Ppe

    Once the need for PPE has been established, the next task is to select the proper type. Two criteria need to be determined:

    • the degree of protection required, and
    • the appropriateness of the equipment to the situation .

    The degree of protection and the design of PPE must be integrated because both affect its overall efficiency, wearability, and acceptance.

    The following are guidelines for selection:

    What Is The Role Of Personal Protective Equipment

    Hazards exist in every workplace so strategies to protect workers are essential. The priority should be to follow the âhierarchy of controlâ including elimination, substitution, or engineering control of hazards at their source or along the path between the source and the worker. Many methods are available, and those most appropriate to the specific situation should be used.

    Controls are usually placed:

  • At the source .
  • Along the path .
  • At the worker.
  • Controlling a hazard at its source is the first choice because this method will eliminate it from the workplace altogether or isolate it from the worker. This approach may require substitution of a material with nonhazardous ones, isolation of hazards, ventilation, addition of safety features to existing equipment, redesign of the work processes, or purchase of new equipment. Administrative controls such as work practices, education/training, and housekeeping are also ways to control hazards.

    When the hazard cannot be removed or controlled adequately, personal protective equipment may be used.

    PPE is considered as the last level of protection when all other methods are not available or possible. See the OSH Answers document Hazard Control for information on a hazard control program.

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    Why Was The Clean Air Act Important

    The Clean Air Act was passed to reduce the impacts of air pollution on both environmental and human health. It requires the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to regulate and monitor atmospheric emissions and toxic pollutants that pose a risk to public health. Mercury emissions have been reduced by 45% since 1990.

    Why Is Fire Smoke Black

    EPA &  PA natural gas processing plant settle over ...

    The type of fuel and how hot its burning. In general, a hotter fire will convert more fuel into elemental carbon, which forms into tiny particles that absorb light and appear in the sky as black smoke. First, the hot, flaming combustion of dry underbrush releases little particles of black soot into the atmosphere.

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    The Act Has Prompted Deployment Of Clean Technologies And Has Helped Provide Impetus For Technology Innovations That Reduce Emissions And Control Costs

    • Catalysts, scrubbers, and low-VOC paints and coatings, are part of a long list of technologies that were not known in 1970, but are proven and widely deployed today. Examples include:
    • Selective catalytic reduction and ultra-low NOx burners for NOx emissions
    • Scrubbers which achieve 95 percent and even greater SO2 control on boilers
    • Sophisticated new valve seals and leak detection equipment, including cameras that can see leaks, for refineries and chemical plans
    • Low or zero VOC paints, consumer products and cleaning processes
    • Chlorofluorocarbon and hydrochlorofluorocarbons -free air conditioners, refrigerators, aerosol sprays and cleaning solvents
    • Water and powder-based coatings to replace petroleum-based formulations
    • Vehicles far cleaner than believed possible in the late 1980s due to improvements in evaporative controls, catalyst design and fuel control systems for light-duty vehicles and treatment devices and retrofit technologies for heavy-duty engines
    • Idle-reduction technologies for engines, including truck stop electrification efforts
    • Routine use of continuous monitoring technology that provides data more quickly
    • Multi-pollutant monitors that helps us to better understand the complex nature of air pollution

    < Learn more about the CAA and the economy>

    Vehicle And Emission Control System Technology

    The technology used for emission control in cars changed rapidly in the 1970s as the automotive industry spent considerable research and development funds to meet the stringent emission standards originally set by the 1970 and 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments. This technology is now being optimized to reduce the product cost associated with emission controls while improving the in-use durability of the emission control systems. Heavy-duty gasoline-powered vehicles have used this technology as allowable emissions have progressively decreased.

    Control technology is being developed to meet proposed standards and anticipated changes in fuels. Proposed 1988, 1991, and 1994 particulate standards require new control systems for heavy-duty diesels. For the United States to become less dependent on imported petroleum fuels, there is interest in using methanol in passenger cars and diesel-fueled buses. There are continued efforts to develop stratified-charge engines for passenger cars because of their potential for better fuel economy at equivalent emissions. There is also a demand for development of direct-injection diesels that give 15 percent better fuel economy than prechamber or swirl-chamber engines with equivalent or better emissions. An additional demand exists for an adiabatic diesel engine that would have improved fuel economy and lower emissions with a simpler cooling system, particularly for vehicles in the heavy-duty class.

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    I Conduct Education And Training

    No program can be complete without education and training to make sure PPE is used effectively. Education and training should cover why it is important, how to fit and wear PPE, how to adjust it for maximum protection, and how to care for it.

    Emphasize the major goals of the program and reinforce the fact that engineering controls have been considered as the primary prevention strategy. It is not good enough to tell someone to wear a respirator just because management and/or legislation requires it. If the respirator is intended to prevent lung disorders, the workers must be informed of the hazards.

    Workers and their supervisors will require education and training in when, where, why, and how to use the equipment to achieve the necessary level of protection. Include workers who are exposed on a regular basis as well as others who might be exposed on an occasional basis, for example, in emergencies or when temporary work is performed in dangerous areas.

    Overexploitation Of Natural Resources

    Clean Air Act

    Natural resources are those that the planet offers without the need for human intervention. They are essential our survival, but if they are consumed at a faster rate than their natural regeneration, as is currently the case, they can be exhausted. Then, we review the consequences and possible solutions to this problem.

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    Interstate Air Pollution Has Been Reduced

    Further reductions in power plant pollution have been achieved by state and EPA efforts to cut interstate air pollution, achieving additional public health benefits and helping downwind states meet health-based air quality standards for fine particles and ozone.

  • CAIR was replaced by the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule, as of January 1, 2015 to address the 1997 ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards .
  • On September 7, 2016, the EPA revised the CSAPR by finalizing an update for the 2008 ozone NAAQS, known as the CSAPR Update. CSAPR Update will further reduce summertime NOX emissions from power plants in the eastern U.S. and help downwind states to meet the new ozone standards.
  • Clean And Disinfect Correctly

    Always follow label directions on cleaning products and disinfectants. Wash surfaces with a general household cleaner to remove germs. Rinse with water, and follow with an EPA-registered disinfectant to kill germs. Read the label to make sure it states that EPA has approved the product for effectiveness against influenza A virus.

    If a surface is not visibly dirty, you can clean it with an EPA-registered product that both cleans and disinfects instead. Be sure to read the label directions carefully, as there may be a separate procedure for using the product as a cleaner or as a disinfectant. Disinfection usually requires the product to remain on the surface for a certain period of time .

    Use disinfecting wipes on electronic items that are touched often, such as phones and computers. Pay close attention to the directions for using disinfecting wipes. It may be necessary to use more than one wipe to keep the surface wet for the stated length of contact time. Make sure that the electronics can withstand the use of liquids for cleaning and disinfecting.

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    Why Do They Call It The Lost Generation

    In the aftermath of the war there arose a group of young persons known as the Lost Generation. The term was coined from something Gertrude Stein witnessed the owner of a garage saying to his young employee, which Hemingway later used as an epigraph to his novel The Sun Also Rises : You are all a lost

    What Was The Environmental Impact Of The Clean Air Act

    Ecology Timeline

    The impact Reducing the concentration of harmful pollutants in the air is central to the Acts function. Between 1990 and 2018, harmful chemicals have dropped significantly, with carbon monoxide falling 74 per cent, ground level ozone declining by 21 per cent and lead decreasing by 82 per cent from 2010.

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    Clean And Disinfect Surfaces And Objects That Are Touched Often

    Follow your schools standard procedures for routine cleaning and disinfecting. Typically, this means daily sanitizing surfaces and objects that are touched often, such as desks, countertops, doorknobs, computer keyboards, hands-on learning items, faucet handles, phones, and toys. Some schools may also require daily disinfecting these items. Standard procedures often call for disinfecting specific areas of the school, like bathrooms.

    Immediately clean surfaces and objects that are visibly soiled. If surfaces or objects are soiled with body fluids or blood, use gloves and other standard precautions to avoid coming into contact with the fluid. Remove the spill, and then clean and disinfect the surface.

    Why Was The Clean Air Act Needed

    Clean Air Act , U.S. federal law, passed in 1970 and later amended, to prevent air pollution and thereby protect the ozone layer and promote public health. The Clean Air Act gave the federal Environmental Protection Agency the power it needed to take effective action to fight environmental pollution.

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    Which Is A Requirement Of The Clean Air Act

    Answer: Many requirements of clean air act were introduced in the USA in the year 1990 after many amendments of earlier acts.

    The act gives stress to emission limitations and air quality, ozone layer protection, controlling emission standards of the moving vehicles, noise pollution, acid deposition control, increasing greenery by planting trees and many other factors.

    Why Is Air Pollution An Increasing Problem In Developing Countries

    The Clean Air Act Under a Trump Administration

    Air pollution in developing countries tends to be worse than in developed countries because poor countries often lack the technology and resources to fight pollution. Energy production is one of the most polluting activities because much of the energy production in developed countries comes from coal./span>

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    Why Should I Identify Hazards And Conduct A Risk Assessment First

    The first step in the development of a PPE program is to identify the hazards at the worksite. Work practices, processes, job procedures, equipment, products, workplace layout, and individual factors should be examined.

    Particular attention should be paid to job requirements as some types of hazards require more than one piece of PPE. For example, working with chlorine may require respiratory, skin, and eye protection because chlorine irritates both the respiratory system and the mucous membranes of the eyes. It is important to continually review Safety Data Sheets as they indicate the hazards associated with specific products and make PPE recommendations.

    A hazard identification and risk assessment should involve the health and safety committee as an integral part of the team.

    Pollution From Automobilesproblems And Solutions

    Concern about the automobile as a source of air pollution has been expressed periodically, but national concern was first evidenced in the 1960s when California established the first new car emission standards. The scientific basis of this effort is the pioneering atmospheric chemistry research of A.J.Haägen-Smit, who showed that photochemical reactions among hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides produce the many secondary pollutants that reduce visibility and cause eye and nose irritation in the Los Angeles area.

    This paper reviews our current knowledge of automotive emissions, including standards, control technology, fuel economy, fuels and additives, in-use emissions, measurement methods for unregulated pollutants, and models for predicting future automotive emissions. Fuel economy is included because achieving high fuel economy and low emissions together makes the engineering effort more difficult. Emissions and fuel economy are interrelated because both are influenced by the engine combustion system design. In practice, the stringency of emission standards determines the importance of this interrelationship. After current knowledge in each area has been reviewed, important gaps in our knowledge are identified and research needed to fill these gaps is described.

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    What Are Natural Resources

    There are two types of natural resources: renewable and non-renewable. The former are inexhaustible, like solar radiation, or their renewal is relatively rapid, as is the case with biomass. Non-renewable resources are those that exist in nature in a limited way because their regeneration involves the passage of many years, such as minerals and fossil fuels oil, natural gas and coal .

    Human beings are depleting the planet’s natural resources and standards of living will begin to decline by 2030 unless immediate action is taken. The World Wide Fund for Nature warns that the current overexploitation of natural resources is generating an enormous deficit, as 20% more than can be regenerated is consumed each year and this percentage is growing steadily.

    Thus, if we continue at this rate, we would need 2.5 planets to supply ourselves in 2050, according to the WWF itself. In turn, this organization shows that the world’s population of fish, birds, mammals, amphibians and reptiles declined by 58 % between 1970 and 2012 due to human activities and predicts that by 2020 this percentage will soar to 67%.

    A Match Ppe To The Hazard

    The Clean Air Act and The Clean Power Plan â Nova Science ...

    There are no shortcuts to PPE selection. Choose the right PPE to match the hazard. On some jobs, the same task is performed throughout the entire job cycle, so it is easy to select proper PPE. In other instances, workers may be exposed to two or more different hazards. A welder may require protection against welding gases, harmful light rays, molten metal and flying chips. In such instances, multiple protection is needed: a welding helmet, welders goggles and the appropriate respirator, or an air-supplied welding hood.

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    Simply Do Routine Cleaning And Disinfecting

    It is important to match your cleaning and disinfecting activities to the types of germs you want to remove or kill. Most studies have shown that the flu virus can live and potentially infect a person for up to 48 hours after being deposited on a surface. However, it is not necessary to close schools to clean or disinfect every surface in the building to slow the spread of flu. Also, if students and staff are dismissed because the school cannot function normally , it is not necessary to do extra cleaning and disinfecting.

    Flu viruses are relatively fragile, so standard cleaning and disinfecting practices are sufficient to remove or kill them. Special cleaning and disinfecting processes, including wiping down walls and ceilings, frequently using room air deodorizers, and fumigating, are not necessary or recommended. These processes can irritate eyes, noses, throats, and skin aggravate asthma and cause other serious side effects.

    How Does Urbanisation Affect Water Pollution

    Urbanization has been linked to the degradation of urban waterways. The major pollutants found in runoff from urban areas include sediment, nutrients, oxygen-demanding substances, road salts, heavy metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, pathogenic bacteria, and viruses. Construction is a major source of sediment erosion.

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    What Does The Clean Air Act Prohibit

    Under the Clean Air Act , EPA sets limits on certain air pollutants, including setting limits on how much can be in the air anywhere in the United States. The Clean Air Act also gives EPA the authority to limit emissions of air pollutants coming from sources like chemical plants, utilities, and steel mills.

    H Perform Regular Maintenance And Inspections

    State Utility Regulation and the Clean Air Act, with Jonas Monast

    Without proper maintenance, the effectiveness of PPE cannot be assured. Maintenance should include inspection, care, cleaning, repair, and proper storage.

    Probably the most important part of maintenance is the need for continuing inspection of the PPE. If carefully performed, inspections will identify damaged or malfunctioning PPE before it is used. PPE that is not performing up to manufacturers specifications, such as eye wear with scratched lenses that have lost their ability to withstand impact should be discarded.

    Procedures should be set up to allow workers to get new PPE or replacement parts for damaged PPE, and help them to keep the PPE clean. For example, respiratory protection devices require a program of repair, cleaning, storage and periodic testing.

    Wearing poorly maintained or malfunctioning PPE could be more dangerous than not wearing any form of protection at all. The workers have a false sense of security and think they are protected when, in reality, they are not.

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